Process equipment

THE CORE OF PROCESS PLANTS

Pressure vessels are containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from ambient pressure. They are at the core of process plants and they can be very simple (e.g. tanks) but can also be very complex (e.g. reactors for nuclear power stations), depending on the application.

Delta Costruzioni Meccaniche has more than 50 years of experience in manufacturing pressure vessel equipment for API production, fine chemical, and the dietary supplement/fragrance industries.

PxV: AN IMPORTANT PARAMETER

Because of the potential danger involved, pressure vessel design and construction are always regulated by external authorities. Each pressure vessel is built with calculation codes and certification procedures in place.

In order to provide customers with a flexible and customized design, Delta Costruzioni Meccaniche has earned many certifications over the course of its 50 years in the business, including:

  • ASME U-Stamp
  • HP0
  • SELO

MULTIPLE PRODUCTS, ONE COMMON STARTING POINT

Since Delta Costruzioni Meccaniche’s experience is based primarily in the process industry, a wide range of customized pressure vessels are offered to the market:

  • Tanks
  • Reactors
  • Fermenters
  • Hydrogenators
  • Heat exchangers

From a small expansion tank to a large fermenter, from a sanitary-designed heat exchanger to a reactor, Delta offers a complete range of solutions for pressure vessels in the process industry.

ACCESSORIES

Customization is not only available for the pressure vessel design, but also for accessories that can be installed on the vessel, such as:

  • Reactor agitators
  • Bottom discharge valves
  • Dip pipes
  • Spargers
  • Internal systems for heat exchange surface improvement

TANKS

The tank is a simple but important pressure vessel. In chemical plants, it is used as storage for liquids or gasses, but it is also used in the production process as a collector or buffer between different plant sections.

Delta Costruzioni Meccaniche has designed and built pressurized tanks based on customer specifications since it was founded. Its skilled and flexible technical department is able to fulfill the most challenging requirements.

According to process needs, the Delta tank production range varies widely:

  • Operating volume: from 10 liters to 100 m3
  • Contact material: AISI316L, AISI904L, C-22, C-276, coated with elastomers
  • Surface finishing: from pickled and passivated to mirror polished
  • Sealing system: from stuffing box to lift off mechanical seal
  • Certification: PED, ASME, HP0, SELO

As is the advantage of working with Delta, each vessel can be totally customized according to the customer’s requirements. The following is a partial list of the options that can be installed on tanks:

  1. Heating/cooling coil, for stored product temperature control;
  2. Manways manually or automatically driven, allowing safe and easy access for maintenance and inspection;
  3. Insulation or sanitary insulation, designed based on process needs and based on different insulation materials like rockwool or foamglass;
  4. Removable supporting legs/saddles for easy installation;
  5. Small side agitators for gentle product mixing;
  6. Zero dead area mushroom discharge valves.

REACTORS AND FERMENTERS

Reactors are at the core of batch chemical production. These containers, which are used to carry out a chemical reaction, consist mainly of three components:

  • The vessel where the reaction happens and that provides the necessary heating/cooling;
  • The agitator, which has different tasks: mixing, improving heat exchange, dispersing a solid inside a liquid, etc.; and
  • The discharge device, which allows for a safe and total product discharge.

Delta Costruzioni Meccaniche provides advanced and tailor-made solutions for each reactor element. The vessel geometry can be designed according to DIN28136, as well as according to customer requirements. The agitator can be developed for process parameter optimization. The discharge valve can be chosen from among a very large custom or standard design range.

THE HEATING SYSTEM: AN IMPORTANT ASPECT

Temperature is a fundamental process parameter, as it directly influences the reaction. The system reliability of controlling it depends on multiple parameters. Since an important role is played by the reactor heating system, Delta proposes multiple solutions that can be adapted for different process parameters:

  1. The half coil (on the bottom head and the body) is most often used. The heating surface area reduction is compensated by the high liquid speed that improves heat exchange coefficients.
  2. The jacket is normally implemented in small reactors, but it can also be used in larger vessels in processes where the heating surface area is important.
  3. In the case of severe applications that need a larger heating area surface (normally fermenters), Delta proposes the installation of internal auxiliary batteries.

The optimum solution is always designed according to the customer’s process and can also be a fusion of the above-listed design styles.

THE AGITATOR: MIXING, DISPERSING, AND MUCH MORE

The same reactor can be suitable for totally different processes depending on the agitator installed in it. As the stirrer is so important, many parameters have to be considered for the design:

  • The process that leads to the impeller choice;
  • The vessel size coupled with the impeller style, determines the agitator speed and power; and
  • The maintenance approach, which influences the selection of subcomponents including mounting supports, shaft seals, drive systems (motors and gearboxes)

Delta can provide reliable support to customers regarding stirrer sizing and design, thanks to its extensive experience in this area.

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are one of the most popular types of exchangers due to the flexibility of the design that allows for a wide range of pressures and temperatures.

A Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger consists of a number of tubes mounted inside a cylindrical shell. Two fluids can exchange heat, one fluid flows over the outside of the tubes while the second fluid flows through the tubes. The fluids can be single or dual-phase, and can flow in parallel or in a cross/counter flow arrangement.

Delta has designed and produced both standard (according to TEMA) and customized Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers since it was founded.

Beginning with the customer’s needs, Delta can thermodynamically and mechanically size the exchanger, using the most common finite elements and parametric software.

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